📰 The European Noema radio telescope reaches full power

Installed in the French Alps, the Noema radio telescope1 has just reached its full capacity and has thus become the most powerful millimetric radio telescope in the northern hemisphere. It is the result of a collaboration between CNRS (The National Center for Scientific Research, better known by its acronym CNRS, is the largest…)that Max Planck Society (MPG, Germany) andInstituto Geografico Nacional (IGN, Spain). Built and managed byInstitute for Millimeter Radio Astronomy (The Institute for Millimetric Radio Astronomy or Iram was founded in 1979. This is the result…) (Iram), and already at the beginning of great discoveries, Noema is now ready to carry out unprecedented observations.


The Noema observatory, equipped with a network of twelve radio antennas.
© Jérémie BOISSIER/IRAM/CNRS PHOTO LIBRARY

Eight years after the inauguration of the first antenna (In radio electricity, an antenna is a device that allows to radiate (transmit) or to…) in 2014, this project (A project is an irreversible commitment of uncertain outcome, not reproducible to…) major is now completed. With twelve 15 meter antennas that can be moved on courses up to 1.7 kilometer (The meter (symbol m, from the Greek metro, measure) is the basic unit of length for the system…)Noema is a new one tool (A tool is a finished object used by a living being to increase its…) single for research (Scientific research initially refers to all measures undertaken with a view to…) in astronomy (Astronomy is the science of observing the stars, seeking to explain…). His resolving power (In optics, the resolving power of an optical system refers to its ability to distinguish between…) as well as the sensitivity of the network allows scientists to collect light (Light is the set of electromagnetic waves visible to the eye…) that traveled up to 13 billion years to reach the earth (Earth is the third planet in the solar system in order of distance…).

It is the culmination of more than 40 years of collaboration scientific (A scientist is a person who is dedicated to the study of a science or sciences and who…) European. Founded in 1979 by the French CNRS and the German MPG, joined in 1990 by the Spanish IGN, IRAM is a world leader in millimeter radio astronomy2 and Noema now his instrument of excellence. He is now the most powerful radio telescope (A radio telescope is a specific telescope used in radio astronomy to…) millimeters on the hemisphere Nerd (North is a cardinal point, opposite south.).

Noema’s antennas are equipped with receivers with very high sensitivity, close to quantum limits. They operate in a network, with a technique called interferometry (Interferometry is a measurement method that utilizes the interferences that occur between…): after pointing all the antennas towards the same area in the room, the signals they receive are combined thanks to a super PC (A computer is a machine equipped with a processing unit that allows…) and their resolving power is then enormous telescope (A telescope, (from the Greek tele meaning “far” and skopein meaning…) who wanted the same diameter (In a circle or a sphere, the diameter is a line segment passing through the center…) than if it included them all.

By changing the configuration of the antennas, astronomers can “zoom in” on one celestial object (A star or celestial object is an object in the universe. The rules for access and…) to see the details. Configurations can span distances from a few hundred meters to now 1.7 km and the network thus functions as a camera (The term camera comes from Latin: chamber, for photographic chamber. It denotes a device…) with lens variable (In mathematics and logic, a variable is represented by a symbol. It…). The larger the configuration, the more powerful the zoom: Noema’s maximum spatial resolution is so high that it would be able to distinguish a telephone (The telephone is a communication system, originally designed to transmit voice…) portable for a distance of more than 500 kilometers.

Equipped with cutting-edge technologies, it is one of the few radio observatories in world (The word world can refer to:) in order to simultaneously measure a large number (The concept of number in linguistics is dealt with in the article “Number…) signatures of molecules andatoms (An atom (from Greek ατομος, atomos, “which one cannot…) – scientists call this multi-line observations. These new possibilities forobservation (Observation is the act of attentively following phenomena, without the will to see them…)combined with its high sensitivity and its very high spectral and spatial resolution make Noema a unique instrument for understanding complexity (Complexity is a term used in philosophy, epistemology (for…) of fabric (Matter is the substance that makes up any body that has a tangible reality. Its…) interstellar and building blocks of the cosmos.


Galaxy spiral shaped ((see talk page)) IC342 i constellation (A constellation is a set of stars whose projections on the roof…) of Giraffe (The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an artiodactyl hoofed mammal…). Noema revealed the presence of gas (A gas is a set of atoms or molecules very weakly bound and…) molecular everything (The whole understood as the totality of what exists is often interpreted as the world or…) along the many spirals and filaments, proof that galaxy (In cosmology, a galaxy is a collection of stars, gas, dust and…) is dotted with intense bursts of star formation.
© IRAM/VLA/Mayall/DSS2/A. Screw

Noema offers French, German and Spanish researchers privileged access and the opportunity to carry out unique research. On Total (Total is the quality of complete, without exception. From an accounting point of view, a…), Iram supports more than 5,000 researchers from around the world who conduct their research with Noema. It allows them to study the cold matter of the cosmos, just a few degrees above zero (The number zero (from the Italian zero, derived from the Arabic sifr,…) absolutely. With its antennae, you can study the formation, composition and dynamic (The word dynamic is often used to denote or qualify that which relates to movement. It…) entire galaxies, but also stars in formation and at the end of life (That’s life 🙂comets orenvironment (The environment is everything that surrounds us. It is all the natural elements and…) black holes, to solve the most fundamental questions in modern astronomy.

Moreover, Noema is the origin of great discoveries and has already done so provided (Fournoi Korséon (Greek: Φούρνοι…) sensational results. For example, he observed the most distant galaxy known to date. day (The day or day is the interval that separates the sunrise from the sunset; it is…)formed a little time (Time is a concept developed by humans to understand…) after big bang (The Big Bang is the dense and hot period that the universe experienced a long time ago…) and recently measured temperature (Temperature is a physical quantity measured using a thermometer and…) from radiation (Radiation, synonymous with radiation in physics, denotes the emission process or…) from cosmic microwave background (The cosmic microwave background is the name given to electromagnetic radiation from…) at a very early stageUniverse (The universe is the sum of everything that exists and the laws that govern it.)a first that will make it possible to trace and better limit the effects ofdark energy (In cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that fills the entire universe…). This year (A year is a unit of time expressing the duration between two occurrences of a related event…) also, Noema discovered the first example of one black hole (In astrophysics, a black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense…) growing rapidly in the dusty core of a starburst galaxy, at one point close to the oldest known supermassive black hole in the universe. The observatory is also behind the latest discoveries of molecules in disks around (Autour is the name given by the nomenclature of birds in the French language (update)…) young stars, real cradles of training planetary (A planetary denotes a mobile mechanical device representing the solar system…).

Noema is also part of the consortium Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), which published in 2019 the first image of a black hole as well as in early 2022 the image of the black hole at the center of our galaxy. It made its first observations for the collaboration in 2021 and then 2022. With its twelve extremely sensitive antennas, it offers the global EHT network unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity. Next to Iram’s second radio telescope, the 30-meter long one installed in Spain, Noema will allow EHT to make animations with even more precise details. The two installations are crucial for the EHT collaboration, for the investigation and for the understanding of physical (Physics (from Greek φυσις, nature) is etymologically…) black holes.

The observatory will be inaugurated on 30 September 2022 in the presence of Antoine Petit, President and CEO of CNRS, Martin Stratmann, Chairman of MPG, Rafael Bachiller, Director ofNational Astronomical Observatory of’IGNKarl Schuster, director of Iram, Stéphane Guilloteau, president of Steering group (The steering group is a group of people who are responsible for ensuring that a…) by Iram and by Reinhard Genzel, Nobel Prize in Physics (The Nobel Prize in Physics is a prize administered by the Nobel Foundation, according to…) 2020 and member of Iram’s steering committee.


Two of the twelve antennas on the Noema radio telescope.
© Jeff GRAPHY/IRAM

Notes:
1 – For NORthern Extended Millimeter Array, “extended millimeter network of the North” in French. The number of Noema antennas is past (The past is primarily a concept linked to time: it consists of the whole…) from 6 in 2014 to 12 in 2022. The tracks that allow them to be moved have also been extended from 760 meters to 1.7 kilometers to be able to move them further apart.
2 – Millimeter radio astronomy studies light if length (The length of an object is the distance between its two extreme ends…) ofwave (A wave is the propagation of a disturbance that produces a variation in its path…) is of the order of one millimeter. Every object (In general, the word object (from the Latin objectum, 1361) denotes an entity defined in…) cosmic light emits different categories of light depending on its age, composition and temperature: to obtain a complete picture of an object, modern astronomy combines observations of different wavelengths, all complementary to each other.

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