Reconstruction of the motions of galaxies for 11.5 billion years

In our Universe, nothing is forever. Nothing is static either. That comets Come and go. The earth revolves around Sun. That stars moving in The Milky Way. And even galaxies have a hard time keeping up. Movements that often exceed the time scales that our modest human lives have accustomed us to.

What we offer today researchers from the University of Hawaii (USA), the University of Maryland (USA) and the University of Paris-Saclay, will track the movements of 10,000 galaxies and a cluster of galaxies. To discover the history of the formation of these structures by unraveling the threads of gravitational interactions that have shaped them over the past 11.5 billion years.

That astronomers calculated the orbits of the galaxies according to theirs brightness, their current position and movement. All based on what scientists know about the rate of expansion of our universe. Of velocity where distant galaxies are moving away from each other. And when you consider that over time gravity exerts its influence to form filaments, walls or clusters on the one hand and emptying of certain regions on the other.

The movements of galaxies from past to future

Over the millions of years that pass, the motion of the galaxies moves away from what it would be under the influence of the expansion of the universe alone. In the closest regions, orbit become complicated. Collisions may even occur. And it was the researchers who presented several of them.

That is, the one they call ” that great attraction »the core of superclusterof Laniakea. It is a supercluster which contains Virgo’s, of which The Milky Way. The simulation shows galaxies moving toward a region in the middle of a four-cluster cluster. “For more than 30 years, astronomers have considered this ‘great attractor’ to be the main source of gravity that causes the entire region near us to move at a particularly high speed compared to the uniform cosmic expansion, but the nature of this source has remained.strangecomments Brent Tully, astronomer, in a press release from the University of Hawaii . Our orbital reconstructions have provided the first good insight into this enigmatic region.”

The other advantage of the researchers’ work is that it allows us to project ourselves into the future. To confirm that with expansion-dominant motion, most galaxies are moving away from each other. However, collisions will still occur. Although it is on a large scale of this simulation, only a few mergers larger ones may appear in the next 10 billion years. All in very close quarters.

In video: map of the universe in motion

An international research team that in France involves the Institute of physicalThe Lyon nuclear facility and CEA-Irfu 2 have just established a dynamic cartography of the nearby universe. These new maps of the cosmos are available as a movie showing the velocities associated with galaxies in the Milky Way environment. The drawn cards confirm standard cosmological model.

CNRS article published on 28/06/2013

Our planet is located in a spiral arm at the edge of a large galaxy: the The Milky Way. Our galaxy is itself part of a supercluster of 100,000 galaxies . At this scale, the universe looks like one moussesoap bubbles: very large voids are connected by filaments and superclusters of galaxies.

An international team involving the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (Claude-Bernard Lyon 1 University, CNRS), CEA-Irfu, the Institute of Astronomy at the University of Hawaii and the Racah Institute of Physics at the University of Jerusalem has just published results that makes it possible to more precisely describe the movements in the structure of our local universe.

This video shows velocity maps of the galaxies around the Milky Way and their motions. Such maps can be compared with predictions from simulations of the observable universe based on the model of standard cosmology with dark matter and dark energy. © HeleneCourtois, YouTube

Tools for studying dark matter and energy

Results of the scientific project Cosmic currents(cosmic currents), the researchers’ work aims to convey the dynamic cartography of the near universe to the entire scientific community thanks to sophisticated visualization tools. The area covered extends up to 300 millionlight years . For the first time, a movie accompanying this publication presents maps incorporating the motions of large galaxy structures. As the study of tectonic plates makes it possible to go back to the properties of the depths of the Earth, the overall movements of the galaxies make it possible to study and map the dominant components of the universe:dark energyand black fabric . The film thus reveals maps of the distribution of visible matter, the galaxies, directly compared to maps above black fabricinvisible (a mysterious substance which would make up more than 80% of the matter in our universe and which would make it possible to explain the movements of galaxies in particular).

Accurate mapping in 3D of the total matter (dark and light) in such a large volume is a first. The correspondence between dark matter sinks and the position of galaxies is clearly identified, providing direct confirmation of the Standard Model of cosmology. By means of zoom and successive shifts of the viewing angle, this film makes it possible to follow the structures and their movements in three dimensions and at different scales. Thus, the scientific community now has a better representation of the universe around us: a valuable tool for future research.

Interested in what you just read?

Leave a Comment