📰 We know the first post-quantum cryptographic algorithms

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Once operational, the quantum computer will sweep away all the principles that cryptography is currently based on. The US standardization agency therefore launched a major competition in 2016 to find algorithms capable of resisting it. Of the four winners, three teams include French researchers.

To find out who has the right to decipher or sign one message (Information theory was developed to mathematically determine speed …)that cryptography (Cryptography is one of the disciplines of cryptology that deals with protecting messages …) public-key problem-based mathematics (Mathematics is a field of abstract knowledge constructed using …) difficult and allows only these operations to those who have the solution. Same time (Time is a concept developed by humans to understand …), everything (The whole understood as the whole of what exists is often interpreted as the world or …) that world (The word the world can refer to 🙂 must be able to encrypt a message or verify a signature from a given user. These processes, which are generally invisible and automatic, take place, for example, with each exchange of e-mails. Uninvited guests who do not have the correct answer in their possession should not be able to perform the operation backwards (In mathematics, the inverse of an element xi is a set equipped with a law of …) and thus calculate the solution that they do not have. Cryptography has therefore chosen a number of problems specifically because they are simple to solve in one means (SENS (Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence) is a scientific project that aims to …)but impossible in the other in a reasonable time, even with the most powerful computers.

However, the predicted advent of quantum computers has changed the situation. These will not just be improved versions of our desktops: operating on physical principles complete (Completion or completely automatic, or at the end of Anglicism or …) different, and beyond the individual question of their Powerful (The word power is used in several areas with a specific meaning 🙂, they will be able to solve certain problems much more easily, including those used by the current cryptography. If formoment (The moment indicates the smallest element of time. The moment is not …) the first demonstrators of quantum computers are still far from being able to perform the kind of tasks that are not about waiting for them to guard against such a risk.

It is therefore National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) – the US agency responsible for technological standards – launched in 2016 an international call for contributions to define safety standards adapted to future (Futurs is a science fiction collection from Éditions de l’Aurore.) the development ofcomputer science (IT – contraction of information and automatic – is the domain …): post-quantum cryptography.

NIST made this call at the request of the NSAsays Pierre-Alain Fouque, professor atUniversity of Rennes (University of Rennes, is an old university, which finds its origin in …) 1 and searching (A researcher (fifth researcher) refers to a person whose job is to research …) withinInstitute (An institute is a permanent organization created for a specific purpose. It is …) of research (Scientific research initially identifies all the measures taken with a view to …) in Computer Science and Random Systems (IRISA – CNRS / University of Rennes 1). The military is considering particularly long lifespans for security: it takes twenty or thirty years to design and build a submarine (A submarine is a vessel capable of moving in three dimensions, below the surface of …), which will operate for several decades and whose communication must remain unencrypted for a further twenty years after it is withdrawn from service. However, it is reasonable to believe that real quantum computers can emerge before all current military equipment is completely out of order.use (Use is the act of making use of something.). “

The competition took place in several stages. 82 projects were originally submitted, divided into two approaches. We first find the diagrams encryption (In cryptography, encryption (sometimes incorrectly called encryption) is the process by which …) public key, which for example allows anyone to send an encrypted message to someone who will be the only one who can read it, then generating electronic signatures that authenticate an action or document (In its current meaning, a document is generally defined as the physical support for a …). On July 5, NIST announced the results of the third round, where we find four candidates and eight alternative projects. Among the selected algorithms, CRYSTALS-KYBER is the only one that deals with public key encryption, while CRYSTALS-DILITHIUM, SPHINCS + and FALCON, in which Pierre-Alain Fouque participates, are dedicated to generating electronic signatures.

The idea is not just to keep one solution, on the contraryinsists Pierre-Alain Fouque. The four schemes currently selected will be standardized and some alternative candidates may join them later. It’s a way of not putting all our eggs in one basket.. Similarly, while three of the projects already selected relate to cryptography based on Euclidean networks, the fourth round also called for schemes based on other security hypotheses.

Cryptography based on Euclidean grids uses as a problem to find the shortest vector (In mathematics, a vector is an element in a vector space, which allows …) not zero between two points, located on one gate (A toaster is a small household appliance. A screen toaster is a …) in a room with many dimensions (In common sense, the term dimension refers to size; the dimensions of a space …). Based on this principle, FALCON has several advantages: its signature is, for example, 666 bytes, which is very little. This guarantees better security on the networks because the signature can be sent at one time, while for others it has to be shared between several IP packets. FALCON is also suitable for QR codes, which contain a maximum of 4000 bytes and therefore cannot afford to devote more than half of them to cryptography alone. Finally, it is also suitable for updates day (Day or day is the interval that separates the sunrise from the sunset; it is …) of hardware (Hardware is set by …)if individual parties do not necessarily have enough memory (In general, memory is the storage of information. It is also to remember …) and the power to verify the integrity of their software.

In addition to the complementarity of the solutions adopted by NIST, the spread of French research is striking. Three of the four projects and two of the eight proposals alternatives (Alternatives (original title: Destiny Three Times) is a novel by Fritz Leiber published …) thus includes scientists trained or working in France.

It is a sign of the excellence of French research, a success due to the presence of several very lively schoolslists Pierre-Alain Fouque. “An ecosystem also driven by initiatives such as the Priority Research Program and Equipment (PEPR) dedicated to quantum technologies, inaugurated on March 4 by CNRS (The National Center for Scientific Research, better known by its acronym CNRS, is the largest …), Inria and CEA. We also find there project (A project is an irreversible obligation of uncertain outcome, not reproducible to …) PQ-TLS1worn by Pierre-Alain Fouque.

Thirteen teams of cryptography researchers are involved in PQ-TLSexplains Pierre-Alain Fouque. There are two goals. The first, more theoretical, consists in supporting the basic research of the various French teams working on new standards. From a point of set (Sight is the sense that makes it possible to observe and analyze the environment through reception and …) practice, we also provide knowledge transfer to cryptography professionals who have mastered the classical principles of it, but who would be less comfortable with the quantum turnaround that the discipline undergoes. train (A train is a steered vehicle that runs on rails. A train is composed of …) to operate. “

1 – Posts quantum (In physics, a quantum (Latin word meaning “how much” and written …) transport layer security (Transport Layer Security (TLS), formerly known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), is a …).

Pierre-Alain Fouque – Professor atUniversity (A university is an institution of higher education whose goal is …) Rennes 1, member of IRISA – pierre-alain.fouque on irisa.fr

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