The universe is much more asymmetric than we think

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According to our basic understanding of the expansion of the universe, its mirror image or reflection should be identical to the original. This principle has long been established in what is known as “CPT symmetry”, according to which a global symmetry governs all the laws of nature in particle charges, parity and time. However, several phenomena in the universe do not appear to respect this principle of symmetry, including the strangely unbalanced distribution of matter and antibody. Nor does our universe obey the time (T) component of the principle, because time is constantly flowing and expanding. A new study in pre-publication regarding arXiv supports this equilibrium theory through two analyzes of data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the leading galaxy mapping database. According to the simulations, none of the “reflections” were symmetrical with the original images.

According to the CPT symmetry theorem established since the 1950s, whose mathematics is an exact science, any theory governed by quantum mechanics and relativity should also obey the “law of common sense.” If particles are to give way to antiparticles, their reflection in a mirror should respect a symmetry when the direction of time is reversed. That is, the reflection of an antiparticle traveling back in time should correspond to the image of the particle traveling in the other direction.

According to this principle and according to the global structure of the cosmos and the function of gravity, the distribution of galaxies in the universe and their reflection in a mirror should be basically the same. We know, however, that the universe already does not obey the symmetry of time because this flows and stretches. The universe would thus expand by changing its physical and chemical structure.

As for the CP asymmetry, several phenomena in the universe seem to confirm it. The violation of the CP symmetry could apparently explain the asymmetry between the distribution of substance and antibody, as there would be a break in the conservation of the number of baryons and in the thermodynamic equilibrium.

The new study, from the University of Florida, proposes a new theory that explains this symmetry balance. In particular, the research team analyzed nearly one million galaxies and demonstrated that their distribution may not be as symmetrical as first assumed, suggesting that our initial understanding of the early universe is likely to be incorrect. .

A new unknown force

The analyzes were performed thanks to the specificity of the structure of the tetrahedron. These include the simplest three-dimensional shape that can be distinguished from its reflection in a mirror. The researchers then compared all possible types of tetrahedra and placed galaxies from a specific sample on each vertex.

To discover the possibilities of symmetry violations, the scientists assigned a main tetrahedron vertex to each galaxy according to two groups. One included those where the sides, when viewed down from the main tip, increase in length as the viewer moves clockwise. The second included those where the sides appear to become longer as the observer moves in the opposite direction.

Normally, if the symmetry is respected, the two groups of tetrahedrons should be the same size as their reflection. However, both analyzes revealed the opposite. One of the scans would actually have shown a symmetry violation of 2.9 sigma, indicating that there was only a 0.4% chance that the pattern was a statistical feature.

The second analysis divided the sample of galaxies into two groups, based on their distance. Violation of symmetry was then recorded at 3.1 sigma in the first group and 7.1 sigma in the second. These analyzes therefore suggest an important asymmetry in the universe and may shake the very foundation of the basic principles of physics, such as gravity. According to the authors of the study, this asymmetry could probably extend to the microwaves in the cosmic microwave background and in gravitational waves.

They would also disrupt our understanding of the primitive universe and today because it would mean the presence of an unknown “force” that interacts with the particles. Ancient theories actually suggest that the distribution of galaxies would be so widespread that it would be difficult for a force to be so intense because it could thereby affect the symmetry of the entire universe.

However, the new theory still arouses great skepticism and has not yet undergone numerous evaluations.

Source: arXiv

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