Conclusions of the 14th BRICS Summit (Russia, India, China, South Africa)

The leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa met on June 23 as part of the BRICS summit, amid major upheavals in the geopolitical order and economy following the Russian military operation in Ukraine and the consequent Western sanctions. The summit was held in a virtual format for the third year in a row due to the COVID-19 pandemic and geopolitical tensions that require leaders to be close to home.

As the BRICS nations have a total population of $ 3.23 billion and a total GDP of over $ 23 trillion, they offer the strongest bloc to compete and / or challenge the global dominance of the West. Such a challenge is obviously not in the military field, as the BRICS is an economic bloc, which means that discussions about the war in Ukraine were not about a united front in support of Moscow, but rather about how Western sanctions against Russia necessitate immediate establishment of an alternative global economic model and order.

“We discussed the situation in Ukraine and remember our national positions as expressed in the relevant fora, namely the UNSC [Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies] and YOUNG [Assemblée générale des Nations unies]. We support the negotiations between Russia and Ukraine. “, reads the joint statement from the BRICS leaders. ” We agree to continue to deepen competitive cooperation between the BRICS countries and to create a fair competitive market for international economic and trade cooperation. »

With regard to the issue of the UN Security Council, the need is “comprehensive reform […] with a view to making it more representative, efficient and effective and increasing the representation of developing countries so that it can respond adequately to global challenges ”was confirmed.

The permanent members of the UNSC are China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States, which excludes any country from Latin America or Africa, as well as India, but still the second most people in the world whose economy is larger than France’s and whose army is stronger than France and the United Kingdom. Thus, the UNSC is unbalanced, making reforms all the more important.

The implementation of a 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is also present in the context of the final declaration of the XIV BRICS Summit. The leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa stressed that the international community should place greater emphasis on development issues and intensify global partnerships.

The Joint Declaration calls for ” financial support and technology transfer to developing countries “and adds that ” Breakthroughs in the use of digital technologies, such as big data and artificial intelligence (AI), can play an important role in promoting sustainable development. To do this, it is necessary to strengthen the participation of the poorest countries and emerging markets “in global decision-making processes and structures and to better adapt it to contemporary realities.”

Africa is particularly highlighted in this process proposal, as its population and markets are one of the fastest growing in the world. The UN estimates that more than half of global population growth over the next thirty years will take place in Africa, followed by Asia, with an expected increase of around one billion people by 2050. In contrast, fertility rates are currently below the level of population exchange in Europe and has been so for several decades.

The declaration also emphasized the importance of the conventions against biochemical and chemical terrorism. Although it does not directly mention US biological laboratories in Ukraine, the document calls for “to finalize and swiftly adopt the comprehensive convention on international terrorism within the framework of the United Nations and to open multilateral negotiations on an international convention to combat chemical and biological terrorist acts.”

“We call for the strengthening of the arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation system, including the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Storage of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BTWC) and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Storage and the use of chemical weapons and their destruction (CWC), and to maintain their integrity and effectiveness in maintaining global stability and international peace and security. “ add the statement.

In addition, BRICS leaders once again expressed their commitment to a world free of nuclear weapons. There is a geopolitical element in this statement as it signals to the nuclear-armed United States, Britain and France that the BRICS does not intend to start a nuclear war or an arms race. .

Preventing an arms race in outer space was also mentioned by BRICS leaders, who stressed “support for the long-term sustainability of space activities and the prevention of an outer space arms race (PAROS) and its militarization, including through negotiations with a view to adopting a relevant legally binding multilateral instrument.”

By emphasizing points of cooperation, greater representation at the highest level of global governance, and emphasizing a nuclear-free world and an arms-free outer space, the BRICS Summit in 2022 was more important than ever given the context of the war in Ukraine. With the geopolitical and economic order changing rapidly, with emphasis on greater global balance, developing countries will be more likely to change the global system if they are better represented and developed in relation to the current situation. In this way, the results of this BRICS summit are perhaps the most important in its history.

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