πŸ“° A supermassive black hole driven out of its galaxy

When two galaxies merge, the supermassive black holes that hide in their core quickly fuse together. Their relative orbital energy will be radiated by gravitational waves. If this last emission is strongly anisotropic, it will produce a recoil of black hole (In astrophysics, a black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense …) as a result of fusion (In physics and metallurgy, fusion is a body’s transition from a solid state to a …) who will be expelled. The event is difficult to detect and only candidates have been observed.

In recent work has an international team, including researchers fromParis Observatory (The Paris Observatory was born out of the project, in 1667, to create an astronomical observatory …) – PSL, discovered gas (A gas is a set of atoms or molecules very weakly bound and …) molecular galaxy (Galaxies is a French quarterly magazine devoted to science fiction. With …) remainder of candidate 3C186, which confirms this the black hole (The Black Hole is a science fiction movie directed by Gary Nelson, …) massive (The word massive can be used as πŸ™‚ was thrown out of his galaxy (A galaxy is in cosmology a collection of stars, gas, dust and …) at 2000 km / s and at an expected distance of 24,000 years light (Light is the set of electromagnetic waves that are visible to the eye …).

πŸ“° A supermassive black hole driven out of its galaxy
Ultraviolet HST image of galaxy 3C 186 (Morishita et al. 2022 arXiv220412499). The green and blue outlines show the NOEMA map in lengths ofwave (A wave is the propagation of a disturbance that produces a reversible variation in its path …) millimeters (Castignani et al. 2022 arXiv220405882). They show a clear 8 kpc shift between the molecular gas pool of the host galaxy (green) and the radio source / quasar emission continuum (blue).

Galaxy fusions are fundamental mechanisms that regulate the growth of galaxies and the evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBH) in their centers. When SMBH merges, a fraction ofenergy (In common sense, energy means everything that allows you to work, make energy, etc.) binding of SMBH is converted into gravitational waves (GW). In the case of’anisotropy (Anisotropy (as opposed to isotropy) is the property of being directional …) from this GW emission, the SMBH resulting from the merger can receive a recoil impulse. Measurable displacements of SMBHs relative to the center of their host galaxy have been theoretically predicted as a result of GW recoil. But so far there has been no unambiguous detection of such shifts. Such a detection would have a huge impact on our understanding of the evolution of galaxies and structures by large scale (The large ladder, also called an air ladder or car ladder, is a …).

To meet this challenge, an international team of scientists studied 3C 186, a powerful extra-galactic radio source, at a distance of 8 billion light-years from the earth (Earth is the third planet in the solar system in order of distance …), who has emerged as a plausible GW rollback candidate. The team studied molecular gas in galaxy 3C 186 using the Northern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) at the Plateau de Bure in the French Alps.

IN Letter on astronomy and astrophysics which has just been published, they report news observations (Observation is the act of attentive follow-up of phenomena, without the will to see them …) from 3C 186 to lengths ofwave (A wave is the propagation of a disturbance that produces a variation in its path …) millimeters, with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. They were able to detect the galaxy’s CO emissions and detect one disk (The word disc is used both in geometry and in everyday life to denote a …) 8×10 molecular10 Msun, turns around (Autour is the name given by the bird nomenclature in the French language (update) …) from the center of the galaxy. This record is obviously off with 8 kpc in projection (Cartographic projection is a set of techniques to represent the surface of …) of the radio source / quasar, revealed by the areas at very high speeds around the massive black hole (see illustration). In addition, the CO line reveals that speed (We distinguish πŸ™‚ of the galaxy and kvasar (A “quasi-star radiation source” (quasars), (quasi-star radio …) is shifted by 2000 km / s along the line of sight. The study thus reports the first confirmation of a GW withdrawal via high-resolution millimetric observations. These interferometric observations were true vital (Vitales is an order of dicotyledonous plants. This order has been reintroduced …) to test the GW recoil scenario, as they both probe the molecular gas reservoir, which is fuel (A fuel is a fuel that drives a heat engine. This transforms …) of star formation in the host galaxy as well as the continuous emission associated with the radio source, which is ultimately driven bygrowth (Accretion indicates in astrophysics, geology and meteorology the increase by …) at SMBH.

that move (In geometry, a displacement is an equation that preserves distances and angles …) observed is in remarkable agreement with theoretical predictions of GW recoil pulses. This is interpreted by the team as a result of heavy gravitational wave cooling as two SMBHs fused after their host galaxies merged. It would be the most energetic event ever observed: a major SMBH merger of lot (The term mass is used to denote two quantities attached to a …) comparable.

This work opens up new perspectives for next-generation radio telescopes, such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and the pulsar-timing array (PTA), a network (A computer network is a set of equipment that is linked together to exchange information …) giant of radio telescopes, overseer (A supervisor or pedagogical advisor or pedagogical assistant is a …) hundreds of pulsars. They will be directly sensitive to GWs emitted by coalescing SMBHs of masses similar to those expected to be found in radio sources such as 3C 186.

Reference:
Castignani, G., Meyer, E., Chiaberge, M., Combes F. et al: 2022, NOEMA observations support a declining black hole in 3C186, Astronomy & Astrophysics Letters, 661, L2 www.aanda.org

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