Thatand has recently uploaded some amazing photos taken by Hubble shows some examples collide, which is part of The , also commonly called the atlas Arp. It is an astronomical catalog showing specific galaxies that we initially owe to the deceased American Halton Arp (1927-2013). He first published in 1966, and when he died, he listed 338 galaxies.
Halton Arp, like, will remain an opponent of the theory of in the late 1960s (despite the discovery of ) until his death. He questioned, like Hoyle, the interpretation of the spectral shift according to in terms of space expansion. This shift had to have a different interpretation, e.g. within the framework of a theory of tired light that involved a continuous loss of photons emitted by with the distance they travel without this loss corresponding to a shift towards long wavelengths, therefore from blue to red, due to continuous and accumulated wavelengths of photons due to the expansion of space during their journey.
The pair of interacting galaxies, collectively called Arp 143. The pair contains the distorted star-forming spiral galaxy NGC 2445, right, and its minus companion, NGC 2444, left. © NASA, ESA, STScI and J. Dalcanton (Center for Computational Astrophysics / Flatiron Inst., UWashington)
Galaxies that do not invalidate the Big Bang theory
The theory of tired light was nonetheless untenable, as the great Russian cosmologist Yakov Zeldovich quickly demonstrated for the first time. According to the known laws forany loss of energy according to the theory of tired light would involve a random loss of for photons by interacting with their surroundings, for example intergalactic dust, so that the images of and galaxies would become more and more degraded with distance, which is definitely not observed.
Moreover, as explained bythe relativistic expansion of space implies that the evolutionary time of the light curve of the explosions of must appear extended according to a very precise law, an extension which no theory of tired light can predict. But not only has the phenomenon and the predicted law been observed, but the disagreement between the theory of tired light and the observations is 11 sigma, as the researchers say in their jargon. It’s a colossal disagreement.
Arp was concerned about the fact that some of the objects in his catalog showed galaxies interacting or at least appearing, so probably because of their proximity to the firmament. However, these galaxies had different spectral shifts, contradicting their seemingly close associations involving distances equal to. Quite logically, Harp deduced that this refuted the standard theory of spectral shift. A well-known example is a visual grouping of 5 galaxies located in and observed for the first time by the French astronomer Edouard Stephan in 1878. In fact, only 4 galaxies are really in interaction, and as in all the other cases that worried Harp, it was possible to show that the differences in displacement actually was due i.a. different spatial distances and the associations on the firmament were simple like the constellations.
Comments on Arp 143. To get a fairly accurate French translation, click on the white rectangle at the bottom right. The English subtitles were then to be displayed. Then click on the nut to the right of the rectangle, then on “Subtitles” and finally on “Automatically translate”. Select “French”. © NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Main producer : Paul Morris
Hubble and Arp’s catalog
It shows the latest image uploaded by NASA and ESA2444, a lenticular ring galaxy located in the constellation Lynx of about 180-200 million. of the Milky Way discovered by the French astronomer Édouard Stephan in 1877, as well as NGC 2445, also a ring galaxy, but irregular, and which undoubtedly interacts with NGC 2444.
NGC 2445 was also discovered in 1877 by Édouard Stephan, and the two galaxies are today collectively called Arp 143. Keep in mind that a ring galaxy is an annular galaxy consisting of massive blue stars and relatively young, which are extremely bright. Thatbelieves that ring galaxies form when a galaxy passes through the center of a larger galaxy. that self-gravitating stars in galaxies can be considered essentially collision-free, but gravitational perturbations caused by such an event can cause shock waves in the interstellar medium containing molecules that cause their gravity and thus a propagating wave formation star.
This is thought to have occurred with Arp 143 between 50 and 100 million years ago, hence the eruption of new star formation visible in NGC 2445. The triangular shape of this galaxy is thought to be due todistorts its ring structure. NGC 2444 contains old stars and no new star births because it lost its gas long ago, long before this galactic encounter.
Just over a week before Arp 143, NASA had posted another image obtained withshows Arp 282, an interacting galaxy pair consisting of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 169 (bottom) and the galaxy IC 1559 (top). NGC 169 is a spiral galaxy located in about 205 million light-years from the Milky Way. It was discovered by Irish astronomer RJ Mitchell in 1857.
These two galaxies are in interaction via fromwhich distorts them and emits gas and stars. They both house as it seems well established for some time that they draw their energy from of by .
Several items from the Halton Arp catalog are shown in this video. © Nas, Esa, go to astronomy