A strange triangular galaxy observed by Hubble

That Nasa andESA has recently uploaded some amazing photos taken by telescope Hubble shows some examples galaxies collide, which is part of TheAtlas of peculiar galaxies, also commonly called the atlas Arp. It is an astronomical catalog showing specific galaxies that we initially owe to the deceased astronomer American Halton Arp (1927-2013). He first published in 1966, and when he died, he listed 338 galaxies.

Halton Arp, like Fred Hoyle, Margaret and Geoffrey Burbidgewill remain an opponent of the theory of big bang in the late 1960s (despite the discovery of cosmic radiation) until his death. He questioned, like Hoyle, the interpretation of the spectral shift according to Hubble-Lemaître-loven in terms of space expansion. This shift had to have a different interpretation, e.g. within the framework of a theory of tired light that involved a continuous loss ofenergy photons emitted by stars with the distance they travel without this loss corresponding to a shift towards long wavelengths, therefore from blue to red, due to expansion continuous and accumulated wavelengths of photons due to the expansion of space during their journey.

The pair of interacting galaxies, collectively called Arp 143. The pair contains the distorted star-forming spiral galaxy NGC 2445, right, and its minus companion, NGC 2444, left. © NASA, ESA, STScI and J. Dalcanton (Center for Computational Astrophysics / Flatiron Inst., UWashington)

Galaxies that do not invalidate the Big Bang theory

The theory of tired light was nonetheless untenable, as the great Russian cosmologist Yakov Zeldovich quickly demonstrated for the first time. According to the known laws for physicalany loss of energy according to the theory of tired light would involve a random loss of the amount of movement for photons by interacting with their surroundings, for example intergalactic dust, so that the images of stars and galaxies would become more and more degraded with distance, which is definitely not observed.

Moreover, as explained by cosmologist Ned Wrightthe relativistic expansion of space implies that the evolutionary time of the light curve of the explosions of supernovae must appear extended according to a very precise law, an extension which no theory of tired light can predict. But not only has the phenomenon and the predicted law been observed, but the disagreement between the theory of tired light and the observations is 11 sigma, as the researchers say in their jargon. It’s a colossal disagreement.

Arp was concerned about the fact that some of the objects in his catalog showed galaxies interacting or at least appearing, so probably because of their proximity to the firmament. However, these galaxies had different spectral shifts, contradicting their seemingly close associations involving distances equal to The Milky Way. Quite logically, Harp deduced that this refuted the standard theory of spectral shift. A well-known example is Stephan Quinteta visual grouping of 5 galaxies located in pegasus constellation and observed for the first time by the French astronomer Edouard Stephan in 1878. In fact, only 4 galaxies are really in interaction, and as in all the other cases that worried Harp, it was possible to show that the differences in displacement actually was due i.a. different spatial distances and the associations on the firmament were simple asterisms like the constellations.

Comments on Arp 143. To get a fairly accurate French translation, click on the white rectangle at the bottom right. The English subtitles were then to be displayed. Then click on the nut to the right of the rectangle, then on “Subtitles” and finally on “Automatically translate”. Select “French”. © NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Main producer : Paul Morris

Hubble and Arp’s catalog

It shows the latest image uploaded by NASA and ESA NGC 2444, a lenticular ring galaxy located in the constellation Lynx of about 180-200 million.light years of the Milky Way discovered by the French astronomer Édouard Stephan in 1877, as well as NGC 2445, also a ring galaxy, but irregular, and which undoubtedly interacts with NGC 2444.

NGC 2445 was also discovered in 1877 by Édouard Stephan, and the two galaxies are today collectively called Arp 143. Keep in mind that a ring galaxy is an annular galaxy consisting of massive blue stars and relatively young, which are extremely bright. That astrophysicists believes that ring galaxies form when a galaxy passes through the center of a larger galaxy. that gas self-gravitating stars in galaxies can be considered essentially collision-free, but gravitational perturbations caused by such an event can cause shock waves in the interstellar medium containing clouds molecules that cause their collapse gravity and thus a propagating wave formation star.

This is thought to have occurred with Arp 143 between 50 and 100 million years ago, hence the eruption of new star formation visible in NGC 2445. The triangular shape of this galaxy is thought to be due to gravitational forces distorts its ring structure. NGC 2444 contains old stars and no new star births because it lost its gas long ago, long before this galactic encounter.

Just over a week before Arp 143, NASA had posted another image obtained with Hubble shows Arp 282, an interacting galaxy pair consisting of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 169 (bottom) and the galaxy IC 1559 (top). NGC 169 is a spiral galaxy located in andromeda constellation about 205 million light-years from the Milky Way. It was discovered by Irish astronomer RJ Mitchell in 1857.

These two galaxies are in interaction via from tidal forces which distorts them and emits gas and stars. They both house active galactic nuclei as it seems well established for some time that they draw their energy fromgrowth of fabric by central supermassive black holes.

Several items from the Halton Arp catalog are shown in this video. © Nas, Esa, go to astronomy

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